The Doshas are formed by a combination of five universal elements – earth, fire, water, wind, and space. It is these five elements that convert into the form of energy in the body, thereupon the bio-energies formed are known as doshas. Every human being is born with a unique balance of doshas. They regulate all the systems of the body.
The word meaning of ‘Dosha’ – ‘that which is quick to vitiate’. It maintains a delicate balance between health & disorder Doshas are of two types namely, sharirika (somatic) i.e. vata, pitta, Kapha, and Manasika (psychological) .i.e. Rajas and Tamas.
In a balanced state, three doshas are the force of energy that moves through the systems and carries out all bodily functions and in a state of imbalance, doshas become visible as excessive mucus in Kapha vitiation, bile in pitta vitiation, flatus in vata vitiation, and other body substances.
The Catabolic Dosha – Vata (AIR +ETHER)
Vata is constructed by a combination of wind and space. The basic characteristic of vata is movement, be it physical or spiritual. It controls the flow of neural impulses. The first focus of the Vata Dosha is to continually maintain a balance between all the three Doshas.
Site: Colon, bladder, urinary system, back, bones, feet, excretory system and large intestine. Main site of vata is large intestine.
- Prana Vata- It is found in the head and it controls the senses.
- Vyana Vata- It controls all the controlled bodily action and is found in the heart.
- Udana Vata-It is found in the chest area and it controls the voice and intellectual abilities.
- Samana Vata- It is present in the stomach and controls the digestive processes.
- Apana Vata- It controls all the outpours through the urinary tract and is found in the anal region.
Lightness, Dryness, Coldness, Roughness, Minuteness, Movement, clear. Vata holds up the body by performing functions like movement, perception, filling, separation, and retaining. Vitiation of vata leads to 80 different diseases.
The Metabolic Dosha – Pitta (FIRE+WATER)
Pitta is formed by a combination of fire and water. It governs all the processes related to metabolism and changes (mental and physical) that occur in the body.
Site: Sweat, blood, lymph, and abdomen. Main site of pitta is abdomen.
- Ranjak Pitta- It helps in the formation of Rakta or blood and is found in the stomach.
- Bhrajak Pitta – It controls skin complexion/pigmentation and is found in the skin.
- Aalochak Pitta – It is present in the eyes and controls the eyesight.
- Sadhak Pitta- It is present in the heart and it governs the psychological capabilities of the body.
- Pachak Pitta – It controls the Agni i.e. digestive functioning and it is found in the duodenum.
Slightly oily, Penetrating, Hot, Lightness, Unpleasant smell, Fluidity, Sharp. Pitta helps for clear-sightedness, good digestion, normal hunger, thirst, bodily softness, lustre, happiness, and intelligence. Vitiation pitta leads to the formation of 40 diseases.
The Anabolic Dosha – Kapha (EARTH +WATER)
Kapha dosha is formed by a combination of earth and water elements. The prime function of the Kapha Dosha is to provide energy to the mind and body.
Site: chest, head, throat, neck, plasma, adipose tissue and abdomen.
- Kledak Kapha- It is found in the stomach and helps to digest the food.
- Shleshak Kapha –It is found in all joints of the body and controls the lubrication of joints.
- Bodhak Kapha-it is found in the mouth i.e. sensory organ of taste and governs the mechanism of taste.
- Tarpak Kapha-It is found in the sira (head) and controls buddhi (intelligence).
- Avalambak Kapha- It is present in the chest and lubricates the heart and throat.
Oiliness, Cold, Heavy, Slow, Slimy. Stable, Soft, Dense, Static, And Cloudy. Kapha supports the body by performing functions like the binding of joint, unction, healing, saturation, giving strength and stability of body. Vitiation of kapha dosha leads to the formation of 20 different diseases.
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